The city with a metropolitan population of over 20 million is sinking at a rate of almost 50 centimeters (20 inches) per year — and this isn’t stopping anytime soon.
At first glance, you’d be inclined to attribute this to the strong earthquakes that sometimes strike Mexico City. But while earthquakes can cause their own damage, they’re not the main culprit here. Instead, it’s something much more inconspicuous: subsidence.
You can read it all here. Put into geotechnical terms, the bed of old Lake Texcoco has some very high void ratio soils, and as a large city puts pressure on them the void ratio decreases as the voids between the soil grains shrink. Thus the entire city has severe settlement, total and differential.
My own lecture on the subject of settlement and consolidation is here.
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