Harry A. Lindahl and Don C. Warrington
Pile Buck International
The successor to the classic Pile Buck Sheet Piling Design Manual, this Pile Buck exclusive is the definitive reference for the design of sheet pile walls. It covers every aspect of sheet pile design including the soil mechanics and earth pressure theory involved in sheet pile design, structural considerations, design of both cantilever and anchored walls, earthquake design for sheet pile walls, seepage and hydrostatic loads, anchor systems and tiebacks, cofferdams, corrosion and more. Text includes numerous worked examples and step-by-step solutions featuring various methods of design. Examples include use of Pile Buck’s software program SPW911, along with “hand” solutions.
NRCS Stream Restoration Handbook, Technical Supplement 14R
This technical supplement provides an introduction to the use of sheet pile, types of walls, sheet pile materials, classical method of design for wall stability, structural design, specification, and installation of sheet pile for stream restoration and stabilization projects. It describes typical applications for cantilever sheet pile wall in stream restoration and stabilization projects, types of sheet pile material, loads applied to the sheet pile, failure modes, design for cantilever wall stability, structural design of the piles, and some construction considerations. It does not address stream stability; hydraulic analyses of the streamflow; geotechnical analyses and slope stability of the stream slopes; or the ecological, aesthetic, or geomorphic consequences of the use of sheet pile.
U.S. Army EM 1110-2-2503
A comprehensive treatment of a specialised subject. Cellular cofferdams are an important type of retaining wall that require a design approach like no other lateral earth retaining structure.
U.S. Army EM 1110-2-2504
A guide to the design of sheet pile walls, primarily using the soil-structure interactive method. It does not give a detailed description of classical methods, but has much useful information.
Investigation of Wall Friction, Surcharge Loads, and Moment Reduction Curves for Anchored Sheet-Pile Walls
William P. Dawkins
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Information Technology Laboratory ERDC/ITL TR-01-4
This report contains discussions and results of three separate studies of topics associated with sheet-pile wall design.
- Chapter 1 presents an investigation of the effect of the angle of wall/soil friction on bending moments and compares the results of design and/or analysis using classical design procedures or one-dimensional (1-D) soil-structure interaction (SSI).
- Chapter 2 discusses the procedures for incorporating the influence of surcharge loads on soil pressures obtained from different pressure calculation methods.
- Chapter 3 compares moment reduction curves from several different sources.
Numerical analysis of cantilever and anchored sheet pile walls at failure and comparison with classical methods
Alejo Gonzalez Torrabadella
Escola de Caminas, UPC Barcelonatech
Concrete sheet pile walls were seldom designed before de beginning of the 20th Century, dating the first design methods from the early 1900’s. It was in the 1950’s, when sheet pile walls were broadly established as a solution to solve problems associated with deep excavations near buildings, subterranean structures or below the water table. Since then, the growing need to use scarce land efficiently, along with the improvement and development of specialized machinery with a greater efficiency, have led to an increase in the use of sheet pile walls. Although design methods have been constantly reviewed and improved, these have not changed much in the last 50 years. Its usage is fully extended due to its simplicity and reliability. Despite the development of numerical methods in the last decades applied to geotechnical engineering the “classical” analytical methods are still broadly used.
This Master Thesis is framed into a wider study of the behaviour of sheet pile walls at failure. In particular, it is the continuation of a previous work by Cuadrado (2010) [Stress-strain analysis at failure and safety conditions in cantilever and anchored sheet pile walls. Comparison with classical methods]. In this study the author developed a detailed assessment of the classical methods for cantilever and single-anchored sheet pile walls and compared them with the Finite Element method. Additionally, that work included a contribution on safety practices, consisting of increasing the embedment depth by 20% and reducing the passive resistance.
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
31 August 1994
This regulation provides directives for procedures to be followed while planning and designing temporary construction for cofferdams and unwatered excavations on major civil works projects. The objective is to provide criteria and guidance for providing safe working conditions and life protection, optimizing cost versus risk of damage, maintaining navigation, and securing the integrity of permanent structures during the use of temporary unwatered cofferdams and excavations on major civil works projects.
Construction cofferdams used in this context are temporary structures, in which collapse or inundation can result in a potential risk to life or that exceed 10 percent of the project cost for the permanent structures, used to facilitate construction of major civil works projects. Temporary construction cofferdams include sheet pile structures, cellular cofferdams, movable cofferdams, slurry walls, braced and unbraced excavations, tie-back walls, and embankments that can be unwatered for construction of permanent hydraulic structures inside the cofferdam area. Major civil works projects are those that involve construction of, or alterations to, navigation, hydropower, or multipurpose dam projects or other similar hydraulic structures.
This report, written for the Corps of Engineers, summarizes the results of a brief investigation of the long-term application of vinyl sheet piles to address some of the concerns raised in a recent Engineering and Construction Bulletin about the integrity, durability, impact damage, construction standards, and allowable design of commercially available PVC sheet piles. The data used in this investigation were available from existing literature, technical organizational databases, (e.g. the Vinyl Institute), manufacturers’ input, input from the technical experts on vinyl, and a few limited laboratory tests. The comments apply primarily to generic PVC and not to the specific PVC material of any manufacturer. The performance of an individual manufacturer’s PVC sheet pile may vary from what has been generally reported here.
Samuel G. Paikowsky and Yong Tan
University of Massachusetts at Lowell
As part of a highway relocation project (RT44) in Carver Massachusetts, long sheet pile walls were installed in Cranbury bogs and ponds in order to mitigate environmental concerns. The subsurface consisting of deep peat deposits challenges the current understanding of the pressures developing on sheet piles and the parameters used for its design. A large instrumentation program has been conducted over a period of 2.5 years, measuring the peat pressure developing along the sheet pile walls during construction and service. This project includes (i) original wall design and associated assumptions, (ii) a detailed field and laboratory study investigating the vertical and lateral properties of the peat, (iii) the instrumentation of the walls using inclinometers and vibrating wire total pressure cells along with a new thin film tactile pressure sensors, (iv) the measurements of the pressures and deflections developing along the wall and independent surveying over various stages of construction including excavation, fill, deep dynamic compaction (DDC) and MSE wall construction, (v) the modelling of the wall-soil interaction during the aforementioned stages using the FEM code PLAXIS, (vi) comparisons between the modelling results and measured values at the different stages, and (vii) the development of recommended parameters for future design of walls in peat.
Theoretical Manual for Design of Cellular Sheet Pile Structures (Cofferdams and Retaining Structures)
Mark Rossow, Edward Demsky and Reed Mosher
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station
Technical Report ITL-87-5
This theoretical manual contains derivations and discussions of procedures for cellular sheet pile cofferdam design. As a companion volume to the planned Engineer Manual, “Design of Cellular Sheet Pile Structures,” it is intended to provide theoretical background for that EM as well as to the user of the computer program for cellular cofferdam design, CCELL. Numerical examples illustrating the design methods’ use, along with a broad list of references, are included. Failure modes involving soil-structure interactions are the primary consideration. The approach herein is intended to provide the reader with the basic analysis procedure to be used for a particular failure mode.
User’s Guide: Computer Program for Design and Analysis of Sheet-Pile Walls by Classical Methods (CWALSHT) Including Rowe’s Moment Reduction
William P. Dawkins
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Instruction Report ITL-91-1
The computer program CWALSHT was developed from specifications provided by the Computer-Aided Structural Engineering (CASE) Task Group on Sheet Pile Structures and is described in this report. The program uses classical soil mechanics procedures for determining the required depth of penetration of a new wall or assesses the factors of safety for an existing wall.