Posted in TAMWAVE

TAMWAVE 7: Analysis for a Cohesive Soil

With the analysis of the concrete pile in cohesionless soils complete, we turn to an example in cohesive soils.

The analysis procedure is exactly the same.  We will first discuss the differences between the two, then consider an example.

Differences with Piles in Cohesive Soils

  • The unit weight is in put as a saturated unit weight, and the specific gravity of the soil particles is different (but not by much.)
  • Once the simulated CPT data was abandoned, the “traditional” Tomlinson formula for the unit toe resistance, namely q_t = N_c c , where N_c = 9 , was chosen.
  • The ultimate resistance along the shaft is done using the formula of Kolk and van der Velde (1996).  This was used as a beta method, for compatibility with the method used for cohesionless soils.  Unless the ratio of the cohesion to the effective stress is constant, the whole concept of a constant lateral pressure due to cohesion needs to be discarded.
  • For saturated cohesive soils, an estimate of pile set-up is done using cavity expansion methods.  Originally excess pore pressure due to cavity expansion during driving was estimated using the method described by Randolph (2003); however, this ran into difficulties and a different method was substituted, which is described here.  This excess pore pressure is then added to the existing pore pressure and a new effective stress is computed at each point for the Kolk and van der Velde method.  The results are within reasonable ranges.

Test Case

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The only change in basic parameters from the other case was the change to a CH soil.  We opted not to perform a lateral load test this time, although the program is certainly capable of using the CLM 2 method with cohesive soils.

Pile Data
Pile Designation 12 In. Square
Pile Material Concrete
Penetration of Pile into the Soil, ft. 100
Basic “diameter” or size of the pile, ft. 1
Cross-sectional Area of the Pile, ft2 1.000
Pile Toe Area, ft2 1.000
Perimeter of the Pile, ft. 4.000
Soil Data
Type of Soil CH
Specific Gravity of Solids 2.7
Void Ratio 0.84
Dry Unit Weight, pcf 91.5
Saturated Unit Weight, pcf 120.0
Soil Internal Friction Angle phi, degrees
Cohesion c, psf 750
SPT N60, blows/foot 6
CPT qc, psf 12,696
Distance of Water Table from Soil Surface, ft. 50
Penetration of Pile into Water Table, ft. 50
Pile Toe Results
Effective Stress at Pile Toe, ksf 7.454
SPT (N1)60 at pile toe, blows/foot 3
Unit Toe Resistance qp, ksf 6.8
Shear Modulus at Pile Toe, ksf 474.8
Toe Spring Constant Depth Factor 1.366
Toe Spring Constant, kips/ft 2,358.0
Pile Toe Quake, in. 0.034
Poisson’s Ratio at Pile Toe 0.500
Toe Damping, kips-sec/ft 14.0
Toe Smith-Type Damping Constant, sec/ft 2.069
Total Static Toe Resistance Qp, kips 6.75
Pile Toe Plugged? Yes
Final Results
Total Shaft Friction Qs, kips 219.92
Ultimate Axial Capacity of Pile, kips 226.67
Pile Setup Factor 2.0
Total Pile Soil Resistance to Driving (SRD), kips 115.44

Shaft Segment Properties
Depth at Centre of Layer, feet Soil Shear Modulus, ksf Beta Quake,inches Maximum Load Transfer, ksf Spring Constant for Wall Shear, ksf/in Smith-Type Damping Constant, sec/ft Maximum Load Transfer During Driving (SRD), ksf
0.50 34.9 2.541 0.0400 0.116 2.91 2.709 0.116
1.50 60.4 1.180 0.0322 0.162 5.03 2.559 0.162
2.50 78.0 0.827 0.0291 0.189 6.50 2.489 0.189
3.50 92.2 0.655 0.0273 0.210 7.69 2.443 0.210
4.50 104.6 0.550 0.0260 0.227 8.72 2.407 0.227
5.50 115.6 0.479 0.0250 0.241 9.64 2.378 0.241
6.50 125.7 0.427 0.0243 0.254 10.48 2.353 0.254
7.50 135.0 0.387 0.0236 0.266 11.25 2.332 0.266
8.50 143.8 0.356 0.0231 0.277 11.98 2.312 0.277
9.50 152.0 0.330 0.0226 0.287 12.66 2.294 0.287
10.50 159.8 0.308 0.0222 0.296 13.31 2.278 0.296
11.50 167.2 0.290 0.0219 0.305 13.93 2.262 0.305
12.50 174.3 0.274 0.0216 0.313 14.53 2.248 0.313
13.50 181.2 0.260 0.0213 0.321 15.10 2.234 0.321
14.50 187.8 0.248 0.0210 0.329 15.65 2.221 0.329
15.50 194.1 0.237 0.0208 0.336 16.18 2.208 0.336
16.50 200.3 0.228 0.0206 0.344 16.69 2.196 0.344
17.50 206.3 0.219 0.0204 0.351 17.19 2.184 0.351
18.50 212.1 0.211 0.0202 0.357 17.67 2.173 0.357
19.50 217.7 0.204 0.0201 0.364 18.14 2.162 0.364
20.50 223.2 0.197 0.0199 0.370 18.60 2.151 0.370
21.50 228.6 0.191 0.0198 0.377 19.05 2.141 0.377
22.50 233.9 0.186 0.0196 0.383 19.49 2.130 0.383
23.50 239.0 0.181 0.0195 0.389 19.92 2.120 0.389
24.50 244.1 0.176 0.0194 0.395 20.34 2.110 0.395
25.50 249.0 0.172 0.0193 0.401 20.75 2.100 0.401
26.50 253.8 0.168 0.0192 0.406 21.15 2.091 0.406
27.50 258.6 0.164 0.0191 0.412 21.55 2.081 0.412
28.50 263.2 0.160 0.0190 0.418 21.94 2.072 0.418
29.50 267.8 0.157 0.0190 0.423 22.32 2.062 0.423
30.50 272.3 0.154 0.0189 0.429 22.69 2.053 0.429
31.50 276.7 0.151 0.0188 0.434 23.06 2.044 0.434
32.50 281.1 0.148 0.0188 0.439 23.42 2.034 0.439
33.50 285.4 0.145 0.0187 0.445 23.78 2.025 0.445
34.50 289.6 0.143 0.0186 0.450 24.13 2.016 0.450
35.50 293.8 0.140 0.0186 0.455 24.48 2.007 0.455
36.50 297.9 0.138 0.0186 0.461 24.82 1.998 0.461
37.50 301.9 0.136 0.0185 0.466 25.16 1.989 0.466
38.50 305.9 0.134 0.0185 0.471 25.49 1.980 0.471
39.50 309.9 0.132 0.0184 0.476 25.82 1.971 0.476
40.50 313.8 0.130 0.0184 0.481 26.15 1.962 0.481
41.50 317.6 0.128 0.0184 0.487 26.47 1.953 0.487
42.50 321.4 0.126 0.0184 0.492 26.79 1.944 0.492
43.50 325.2 0.125 0.0183 0.497 27.10 1.935 0.497
44.50 328.9 0.123 0.0183 0.502 27.41 1.926 0.502
45.50 332.6 0.122 0.0183 0.507 27.72 1.917 0.507
46.50 336.2 0.120 0.0183 0.513 28.02 1.908 0.513
47.50 339.8 0.119 0.0183 0.518 28.32 1.898 0.518
48.50 343.4 0.118 0.0183 0.523 28.61 1.889 0.523
49.50 346.9 0.117 0.0183 0.528 28.91 1.880 0.528
50.50 349.7 0.116 0.0183 0.533 29.15 1.871 0.000
51.50 351.9 0.115 0.0183 0.537 29.33 1.862 0.005
52.50 354.1 0.115 0.0184 0.541 29.51 1.853 0.011
53.50 356.2 0.114 0.0184 0.546 29.69 1.844 0.018
54.50 358.4 0.114 0.0184 0.550 29.87 1.835 0.023
55.50 360.5 0.113 0.0185 0.555 30.04 1.826 0.029
56.50 362.6 0.113 0.0185 0.559 30.22 1.816 0.035
57.50 364.7 0.113 0.0185 0.564 30.39 1.807 0.041
58.50 366.8 0.112 0.0186 0.568 30.57 1.797 0.047
59.50 368.9 0.112 0.0186 0.573 30.74 1.788 0.053
60.50 371.0 0.112 0.0187 0.578 30.92 1.778 0.059
61.50 373.0 0.111 0.0187 0.583 31.09 1.768 0.064
62.50 375.1 0.111 0.0188 0.588 31.26 1.757 0.070
63.50 377.1 0.111 0.0189 0.593 31.43 1.747 0.076
64.50 379.1 0.111 0.0189 0.598 31.60 1.736 0.082
65.50 381.2 0.110 0.0190 0.603 31.76 1.726 0.088
66.50 383.2 0.110 0.0191 0.609 31.93 1.715 0.093
67.50 385.2 0.110 0.0191 0.614 32.10 1.703 0.099
68.50 387.1 0.110 0.0192 0.620 32.26 1.692 0.105
69.50 389.1 0.110 0.0193 0.626 32.43 1.680 0.111
70.50 391.1 0.110 0.0194 0.632 32.59 1.668 0.117
71.50 393.0 0.110 0.0195 0.638 32.75 1.656 0.123
72.50 395.0 0.110 0.0196 0.645 32.91 1.643 0.129
73.50 396.9 0.110 0.0197 0.652 33.07 1.630 0.135
74.50 398.8 0.110 0.0198 0.659 33.23 1.617 0.141
75.50 400.7 0.110 0.0199 0.666 33.39 1.603 0.147
76.50 402.6 0.110 0.0201 0.673 33.55 1.589 0.153
77.50 404.5 0.111 0.0202 0.681 33.71 1.575 0.159
78.50 406.4 0.111 0.0203 0.689 33.87 1.560 0.166
79.50 408.3 0.111 0.0205 0.698 34.03 1.544 0.172
80.50 410.2 0.112 0.0207 0.707 34.18 1.528 0.179
81.50 412.0 0.112 0.0209 0.716 34.34 1.512 0.186
82.50 413.9 0.113 0.0211 0.726 34.49 1.494 0.193
83.50 415.7 0.113 0.0213 0.737 34.64 1.476 0.200
84.50 417.6 0.114 0.0215 0.748 34.80 1.457 0.207
85.50 419.4 0.115 0.0217 0.760 34.95 1.437 0.215
86.50 421.2 0.116 0.0220 0.773 35.10 1.416 0.223
87.50 423.0 0.117 0.0223 0.787 35.25 1.394 0.232
88.50 424.8 0.118 0.0227 0.802 35.40 1.370 0.241
89.50 426.6 0.120 0.0230 0.819 35.55 1.345 0.250
90.50 428.4 0.121 0.0235 0.838 35.70 1.318 0.260
91.50 430.2 0.123 0.0239 0.859 35.85 1.288 0.271
92.50 432.0 0.126 0.0245 0.882 36.00 1.256 0.283
93.50 433.8 0.129 0.0252 0.910 36.15 1.220 0.297
94.50 435.5 0.132 0.0260 0.944 36.29 1.179 0.313
95.50 437.3 0.137 0.0270 0.985 36.44 1.133 0.331
96.50 439.0 0.143 0.0284 1.038 36.58 1.077 0.354
97.50 440.8 0.152 0.0303 1.113 36.73 1.006 0.385
98.50 442.5 0.168 0.0335 1.235 36.87 0.908 0.433
99.50 444.2 0.181 0.0363 1.343 37.02 0.837 0.477

Data for Axial Load Analysis using ALP Method
Length of the pile, in. 1,200.0
Axial stiffness EA. lbs. 720,000,000
Circumference, in. 48.000
Point resistance, lbs. 6,750
Quake of the point, in. 0.034
Number of pile elements 100
Number of loading steps 20
Maximum pile load, lbs. 226,672.5
Load Increment, lbs. 22,667.3
Failure Load, lbs. 226,672.5
Results for Loading and Unloading Test
Load Step Force at Pile Head, kips Pile Head Deflection, in. Number of Plastic Shaft Springs
0 0.0 0.000 0
1 22.7 0.012 0
2 45.3 0.025 0
3 68.0 0.039 18
4 90.7 0.058 33
5 113.3 0.082 44
6 136.0 0.109 55
7 158.7 0.140 64
8 181.3 0.175 74
9 204.0 0.214 84
10 226.7 0.271 100
11 204.0 0.259 0
12 181.3 0.246 0
13 158.7 0.234 0
14 136.0 0.221 0
15 113.3 0.209 7
16 90.7 0.193 18
17 68.0 0.175 27
18 45.3 0.154 33
19 22.7 0.132 39
20 -0.0 0.108 44
alpimage
Plotted Results
x-axis = Pile Head Force
y-axis = Pile Head Deflection
Plot Limits:
x-axis from -0.000 to 226.673
y-axis from 0.000 to 0.271

Although the cohesive soils yield very different results from the cohesionless ones, the presentation is the same.  Note the significant difference between the element/segment SRD for the static resistance and with the pore pressure increase included.  The pile set-up factor is about 2, which is within an acceptable range.  This does not apply to the toe.

Screenshot_20180106_163425

The input for the wave equation is identical, except for the hammer selected, which is much smaller than for the cohesionless soils.  This is not due to set-up but to the lower capacity of the pile; the hammer selection does not account for set-up.  The user will have to select a smaller hammer size to take full advantage of this, depending upon the results.

General Output for Wave Equation Analysis
2018-01-06T15:59:49-05:00
Time Step, msec 0.04024
Pile Weight, lbs. 15,000
Pile Stiffness, lb/ft 600,000
Pile Impedance, lb-sec/ft 57,937.5
L/c, msec 8.04688
Pile Toe Element Number 102
Length of Pile Segments, ft. 1
Hammer Manufacturer and Size VULCAN 65C
Hammer Rated Striking Energy, ft-lbs 19175
Hammer Efficiency, percent 50
Length of Hammer Cushion Stack, in. 18.5
Soil Resistance to Driving (SRD) for detailed results only, kips 115.4
Percent at Toe 5.85
Toe Quake, in. 0.009
Toe Damping, sec/ft 2.07

Initial Element Output
SRD = 115.44 kips
Element Element Weight, lbs. Element Stiffness, kips/in Element Cross-Sectional Area, in2 Element Soil Resistance, kips Element Coefficient of Restitution Element Initial Velocity, ft/sec Element Soil Shaft Stiffness, kips/in Element Quake, in. Element Damping, sec/ft
Ram 6,500.0 1,880.5 99.40 0.0 0.80 9.74 0.0 1,000.000 0.00
Driving Accessory 1,100.0 711.5 144.00 0.0 0.51 0.00 0.0 1,000.000 0.00
Pile Head 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.5 1.00 0.00 11.6 0.040 2.71
4 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.6 1.00 0.00 20.1 0.032 2.56
5 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.8 1.00 0.00 26.0 0.029 2.49
6 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.8 1.00 0.00 30.7 0.027 2.44
7 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.9 1.00 0.00 34.9 0.026 2.41
8 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.0 1.00 0.00 38.5 0.025 2.38
9 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.0 1.00 0.00 41.9 0.024 2.35
10 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.1 1.00 0.00 45.0 0.024 2.33
11 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.1 1.00 0.00 47.9 0.023 2.31
12 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.1 1.00 0.00 50.7 0.023 2.29
13 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.2 1.00 0.00 53.3 0.022 2.28
14 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.2 1.00 0.00 55.7 0.022 2.26
15 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.3 1.00 0.00 58.1 0.022 2.25
16 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.3 1.00 0.00 60.4 0.021 2.23
17 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.3 1.00 0.00 62.6 0.021 2.22
18 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.3 1.00 0.00 64.7 0.021 2.21
19 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.4 1.00 0.00 66.8 0.021 2.20
20 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.4 1.00 0.00 68.8 0.020 2.18
21 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.4 1.00 0.00 70.7 0.020 2.17
22 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.5 1.00 0.00 72.6 0.020 2.16
23 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.5 1.00 0.00 74.4 0.020 2.15
24 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.5 1.00 0.00 76.2 0.020 2.14
25 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.5 1.00 0.00 78.0 0.020 2.13
26 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.6 1.00 0.00 79.7 0.020 2.12
27 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.6 1.00 0.00 81.4 0.019 2.11
28 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.6 1.00 0.00 83.0 0.019 2.10
29 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.6 1.00 0.00 84.6 0.019 2.09
30 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.6 1.00 0.00 86.2 0.019 2.08
31 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.7 1.00 0.00 87.7 0.019 2.07
32 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.7 1.00 0.00 89.3 0.019 2.06
33 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.7 1.00 0.00 90.8 0.019 2.05
34 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.7 1.00 0.00 92.2 0.019 2.04
35 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.8 1.00 0.00 93.7 0.019 2.03
36 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.8 1.00 0.00 95.1 0.019 2.03
37 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.8 1.00 0.00 96.5 0.019 2.02
38 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.8 1.00 0.00 97.9 0.019 2.01
39 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.8 1.00 0.00 99.3 0.019 2.00
40 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.9 1.00 0.00 100.6 0.019 1.99
41 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.9 1.00 0.00 102.0 0.018 1.98
42 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.9 1.00 0.00 103.3 0.018 1.97
43 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.9 1.00 0.00 104.6 0.018 1.96
44 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.9 1.00 0.00 105.9 0.018 1.95
45 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 2.0 1.00 0.00 107.1 0.018 1.94
46 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 2.0 1.00 0.00 108.4 0.018 1.93
47 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 2.0 1.00 0.00 109.6 0.018 1.93
48 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 2.0 1.00 0.00 110.9 0.018 1.92
49 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 2.1 1.00 0.00 112.1 0.018 1.91
50 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 2.1 1.00 0.00 113.3 0.018 1.90
51 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 2.1 1.00 0.00 114.5 0.018 1.89
52 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 2.1 1.00 0.00 115.6 0.018 1.88
53 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.0 1.00 0.00 0.0 0.018 1.87
54 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.0 1.00 0.00 1.2 0.018 1.86
55 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.0 1.00 0.00 2.5 0.018 1.85
56 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.1 1.00 0.00 3.8 0.018 1.84
57 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.1 1.00 0.00 5.1 0.018 1.84
58 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.1 1.00 0.00 6.4 0.018 1.83
59 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.1 1.00 0.00 7.6 0.018 1.82
60 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.2 1.00 0.00 8.9 0.019 1.81
61 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.2 1.00 0.00 10.1 0.019 1.80
62 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.2 1.00 0.00 11.3 0.019 1.79
63 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.2 1.00 0.00 12.6 0.019 1.78
64 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.3 1.00 0.00 13.8 0.019 1.77
65 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.3 1.00 0.00 14.9 0.019 1.76
66 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.3 1.00 0.00 16.1 0.019 1.75
67 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.3 1.00 0.00 17.3 0.019 1.74
68 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.4 1.00 0.00 18.4 0.019 1.73
69 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.4 1.00 0.00 19.6 0.019 1.71
70 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.4 1.00 0.00 20.7 0.019 1.70
71 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.4 1.00 0.00 21.8 0.019 1.69
72 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.4 1.00 0.00 23.0 0.019 1.68
73 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.5 1.00 0.00 24.1 0.019 1.67
74 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.5 1.00 0.00 25.2 0.019 1.66
75 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.5 1.00 0.00 26.2 0.020 1.64
76 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.5 1.00 0.00 27.3 0.020 1.63
77 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.6 1.00 0.00 28.4 0.020 1.62
78 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.6 1.00 0.00 29.4 0.020 1.60
79 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.6 1.00 0.00 30.5 0.020 1.59
80 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.6 1.00 0.00 31.5 0.020 1.57
81 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.7 1.00 0.00 32.6 0.020 1.56
82 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.7 1.00 0.00 33.6 0.021 1.54
83 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.7 1.00 0.00 34.6 0.021 1.53
84 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.7 1.00 0.00 35.6 0.021 1.51
85 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.8 1.00 0.00 36.6 0.021 1.49
86 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.8 1.00 0.00 37.6 0.021 1.48
87 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.8 1.00 0.00 38.6 0.021 1.46
88 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.9 1.00 0.00 39.6 0.022 1.44
89 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.9 1.00 0.00 40.6 0.022 1.42
90 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 0.9 1.00 0.00 41.5 0.022 1.39
91 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.0 1.00 0.00 42.5 0.023 1.37
92 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.0 1.00 0.00 43.4 0.023 1.34
93 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.0 1.00 0.00 44.4 0.023 1.32
94 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.1 1.00 0.00 45.3 0.024 1.29
95 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.1 1.00 0.00 46.2 0.025 1.26
96 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.2 1.00 0.00 47.2 0.025 1.22
97 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.3 1.00 0.00 48.1 0.026 1.18
98 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.3 1.00 0.00 49.0 0.027 1.13
99 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.4 1.00 0.00 49.9 0.028 1.08
100 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.5 1.00 0.00 50.8 0.030 1.01
101 150.0 60,000.0 144.00 1.7 1.00 0.00 51.7 0.034 0.91
102 150.0 786.0 144.00 1.9 1.00 0.00 52.6 0.036 0.84
Pile Toe 0.0 786.0 144.00 6.8 0.00 0.00 0.0 0.009 2.07

Final Element Output
SRD = 115.44 kips
Element Time Step for Maximum Compressive Stress Maximum Compressive Stress, ksi Time Step for Maximum Tensile Stress Maximum Tensile Stress, ksi Maximum Deflection, in. Final Deflection, in. Final Velocity, ft/sec
1 183 2.90 592 0.00 0.818 0.277 -9.74
2 119 1.55 538 0.00 0.696 0.681 0.12
3 121 1.56 2 0.00 0.270 0.265 -0.02
4 123 1.56 3 0.00 0.270 0.265 -0.03
5 125 1.55 465 0.01 0.270 0.265 -0.02
6 127 1.55 467 0.05 0.270 0.265 -0.02
7 128 1.55 469 0.10 0.269 0.265 -0.02
8 130 1.55 471 0.14 0.269 0.265 -0.02
9 132 1.55 471 0.18 0.268 0.265 -0.01
10 134 1.55 473 0.22 0.268 0.265 -0.00
11 136 1.54 475 0.26 0.268 0.265 0.00
12 138 1.54 477 0.30 0.267 0.265 0.01
13 140 1.54 476 0.34 0.267 0.265 0.02
14 142 1.54 477 0.37 0.267 0.266 0.03
15 144 1.53 478 0.40 0.267 0.266 0.05
16 146 1.53 477 0.43 0.267 0.266 0.08
17 148 1.53 477 0.46 0.267 0.267 0.11
18 150 1.52 476 0.48 0.267 0.267 0.14
19 152 1.52 477 0.50 0.268 0.268 0.17
20 154 1.52 478 0.51 0.269 0.269 0.20
21 156 1.51 476 0.53 0.269 0.269 0.23
22 158 1.51 476 0.54 0.270 0.270 0.26
23 160 1.50 475 0.55 0.271 0.271 0.30
24 162 1.50 476 0.55 0.271 0.271 0.34
25 164 1.49 476 0.55 0.272 0.272 0.37
26 166 1.49 476 0.54 0.273 0.273 0.41
27 168 1.48 475 0.53 0.274 0.274 0.45
28 170 1.48 475 0.51 0.274 0.274 0.48
29 172 1.47 476 0.48 0.275 0.275 0.53
30 174 1.47 475 0.45 0.276 0.276 0.58
31 176 1.46 474 0.41 0.276 0.276 0.63
32 178 1.46 472 0.37 0.277 0.277 0.68
33 180 1.45 471 0.32 0.278 0.278 0.71
34 182 1.44 472 0.28 0.278 0.278 0.72
35 184 1.43 466 0.23 0.278 0.278 0.72
36 185 1.42 516 0.24 0.279 0.279 0.70
37 186 1.41 524 0.26 0.279 0.279 0.65
38 188 1.40 529 0.28 0.279 0.279 0.58
39 190 1.38 532 0.31 0.279 0.279 0.51
40 192 1.37 533 0.34 0.279 0.279 0.44
41 194 1.36 542 0.38 0.279 0.279 0.38
42 196 1.35 541 0.42 0.279 0.279 0.33
43 198 1.33 544 0.45 0.279 0.279 0.28
44 200 1.32 543 0.49 0.279 0.279 0.23
45 203 1.31 542 0.52 0.279 0.279 0.18
46 205 1.30 545 0.55 0.278 0.278 0.12
47 207 1.28 544 0.58 0.278 0.278 0.08
48 209 1.27 542 0.60 0.277 0.277 0.03
49 211 1.26 544 0.63 0.277 0.277 -0.01
50 213 1.24 543 0.65 0.277 0.277 -0.05
51 216 1.23 542 0.67 0.276 0.276 -0.10
52 217 1.22 540 0.69 0.276 0.276 -0.14
53 218 1.22 539 0.69 0.277 0.275 -0.18
54 220 1.22 540 0.69 0.278 0.275 -0.22
55 222 1.22 539 0.69 0.279 0.274 -0.25
56 224 1.22 538 0.69 0.281 0.274 -0.28
57 226 1.22 538 0.68 0.282 0.274 -0.32
58 228 1.22 538 0.66 0.283 0.273 -0.36
59 230 1.22 537 0.65 0.285 0.273 -0.41
60 232 1.23 536 0.63 0.286 0.273 -0.46
61 235 1.23 534 0.60 0.287 0.273 -0.52
62 237 1.23 535 0.57 0.288 0.273 -0.56
63 239 1.23 533 0.54 0.290 0.273 -0.61
64 241 1.23 532 0.50 0.291 0.273 -0.63
65 244 1.23 530 0.46 0.292 0.273 -0.66
66 246 1.23 531 0.41 0.293 0.273 -0.69
67 248 1.23 531 0.35 0.294 0.273 -0.72
68 250 1.23 530 0.29 0.294 0.274 -0.74
69 253 1.23 532 0.23 0.295 0.274 -0.75
70 255 1.23 470 0.18 0.296 0.274 -0.75
71 253 1.23 474 0.21 0.296 0.275 -0.75
72 255 1.23 473 0.24 0.296 0.275 -0.75
73 257 1.23 476 0.27 0.296 0.276 -0.74
74 260 1.23 476 0.30 0.296 0.276 -0.74
75 262 1.23 478 0.33 0.296 0.277 -0.72
76 264 1.23 478 0.35 0.295 0.277 -0.71
77 266 1.23 480 0.38 0.295 0.278 -0.70
78 268 1.22 479 0.39 0.294 0.278 -0.68
79 271 1.22 478 0.41 0.294 0.279 -0.66
80 273 1.22 480 0.43 0.293 0.279 -0.65
81 275 1.21 478 0.44 0.292 0.280 -0.64
82 277 1.21 477 0.46 0.292 0.280 -0.62
83 279 1.20 479 0.47 0.291 0.281 -0.60
84 280 1.19 477 0.48 0.290 0.282 -0.58
85 279 1.18 474 0.49 0.290 0.282 -0.55
86 280 1.17 474 0.50 0.289 0.283 -0.53
87 281 1.15 476 0.50 0.289 0.284 -0.51
88 281 1.12 469 0.51 0.288 0.284 -0.48
89 280 1.10 471 0.51 0.288 0.285 -0.45
90 281 1.06 471 0.51 0.288 0.285 -0.42
91 281 1.02 472 0.50 0.288 0.286 -0.40
92 280 0.97 473 0.49 0.288 0.287 -0.37
93 281 0.92 474 0.46 0.288 0.287 -0.34
94 282 0.87 474 0.42 0.288 0.288 -0.30
95 283 0.81 475 0.37 0.289 0.288 -0.27
96 282 0.75 476 0.31 0.289 0.289 -0.25
97 283 0.68 478 0.25 0.289 0.289 -0.23
98 289 0.62 480 0.19 0.289 0.289 -0.21
99 294 0.56 482 0.12 0.290 0.290 -0.19
100 302 0.51 485 0.07 0.290 0.290 -0.17
101 307 0.47 489 0.02 0.290 0.290 -0.15
102 316 0.46 532 0.00 0.290 0.290 -0.12
forcetime
Force-Time History, SRD = 115.44 kips
Blue Line = Pile Head Force
Red Line = Pile Head Impedance*Velocity
Vertical grid spacing from left to right is L/c, may not be complete for last spacing.
Plot Limits:
x-axis from 0.000 to 2.955
y-axis from -68,985.344 to 223,926.386
Summary of Results and Bearing Graph Data
Soil Resistance, kips Permanent Set of Pile Toe, inches Blows per Foot of Penetration Maximum Compressive Stress, ksi Element of Maximum Compressive Stress Maximum Tensile Stress, ksi Element of Maximum Tensile Stress Number of Iterations
23.1 (45.3) 1.541 7.8 1.53 4 1.21 24 2000
46.2 (90.7) 0.744 16.1 1.54 4 1.05 54 1149
69.3 (136.0) 0.494 24.3 1.54 4 0.97 54 872
92.3 (181.3) 0.349 34.4 1.55 4 0.86 54 740
115.4 (226.7) 0.281 42.7 1.56 4 0.69 54 592
138.5 (272.0) 0.228 52.6 1.58 3 0.52 56 588
161.6 (317.3) 0.184 65.2 1.61 3 0.30 92 480
184.7 (362.7) 0.144 83.3 1.64 3 0.20 94 477
207.8 (408.0) 0.108 111.1 1.67 4 0.11 95 474
230.9 (453.3) 0.077 155.4 1.70 4 0.07 92 471

The bearing graph data is complete.  The only difference with the cohesionless soils is the way the soil resistance is reported; the values in parentheses are ultimate resistance without set-up and those outside are the SRD with set-up.  The blow count indicates that a smaller hammer may be in order.

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